PhilosophyPosted by Nico Metten Thu, July 23, 2015 13:32:00Hans-Hermann Hoppe
known for his skepticism of open borders. He thinks that open borders
are inconsistent with libertarian principals. Therefore, real
libertarians have to oppose this policy, at least as long as the
state exists. I think Hoppe is mistaken on the issue. His arguments
seem deeply confused and I am going to show why. As he claims to be a libertarian and the state is basically illiberal, then in order to make a supporting statement of a very intrusive state policy like immigration, his argumentation just has to be very messy. There is no real
case for the support of this policy. To show exactly how this works,
let us look at two of his articles on immigration.
LewRockwell.com re-published two of such articles. The first was
entitles “Free Immigration is Forced Integration” and the second
“Immigration and Libertarianism”. Let us start with the first,
“Free Immigration is Forced Integration”.
In this articles
Hoppe tries to make essentially one argument. The argument is that
“free” immigration violates the property rights of the locals and
can therefore not be libertarian. To get to this conclusion, Hoppe
needs to distract the reader with a number of argumentative tricks to
make it look like, his conclusion follows from his premises.
Let us go through
the article systematically. The article is divided into 7 parts. He
starts by summarizing what he describes as “the classical argument
for free immigration”. I am not sure if there is such a thing as
“the classical argument”. There are definitely a number of
different arguments in favour of open borders. Hoppe, in a side note
even concedes this in the second part of the article. But he makes it
incorrectly look like this is another route to dispute the open
border claim by calling it a “first shortcoming” of the free
immigration argument. No, what Hoppe calls “the classic argument”
for free immigration, is merely the economic argument for it. But
fair enough, it is an important argument and Hoppe, as far as I can
tell summarizes it correctly. He also explicitly agrees with the idea
that free immigration does not cause economic problems. He
understands correctly that this would be an argument against free
markets in general.
In the second part
of the article, he then goes on to say that trying to criticise open
borders by pointing out negative effects of the welfare state is also
not persuasive. These are problems of the welfare state and not of
open borders in and of itself. I think this is correct. If the
welfare state or for that matter any other state policy leads to
negative effects of freeing up markets, then libertarians should
attack these policies and not the freeing up of markets. So far,
Hoppe seems to make the case in favour of open borders. One thing that
is important to note until this point is, how he uses the word
'free'. The word 'free' is used in the libertarian sense of “free
Now, from the third
part of the article, Hoppe starts making the libertarian case against
free immigration. His argument is that in an anarcho-capitalist
society, everything worth owning is already owned. Therefore, there
cannot be freedom of immigration. So the property prevents the
freedom. Wait a minute, what? Why is property in contradiction with
freedom? This is a strange argument coming from the founder of The Property
and Freedom Society. But maybe they serve free alcohol there? But
seriously, isn't the whole point of libertarianism that property and
liberty are closely linked with each other? How can Hoppe make the
argument that since we have property, there cannot be freedom. That
sounds very confused to me. It should be clear that Hoppe at this
point has started to use the word freedom in a non libertarian way,
as in 'free of charge'. He argues that we have property, therefore
immigration cannot be free of costs. In this sense of the word
however, libertarianism is also in contradiction with free markets. A
free market would be a market in which everyone can help themselves
to everything they like, free of charge. That clearly is not
libertarian. That is more a socialist way of using the word freedom.
Libertarians explicitly stress that their idea of freedom is to be
free from proactive impositions from others. Even more remarkable is
that Hoppe just a few sentences earlier has used the word in exactly
this libertarian meaning. And now he just changes the meaning of
“free” without even telling the reader about it. One wonders why?
Is he not smart enough to realise that he is using the word with the
different meaning, or is he speculating that his audience won't be? I
don't know the answer, but I know that at least one of the two needs
to be true.
So let me make
clear, what a libertarian like myself means when talking about “free
immigration”, or for that matter immigration. Immigration is a
collectivist term. It means the movement of people over some form of
collectivist borders. These can be cultural borders or state borders.
As such it is not always completely clear when to call the long term
reallocation of a person to another location immigration and when he
is just moving house. Simply moving house from Charles Street a few
miles down the road to Summer Lane is usually not called immigration.
In today's statist
world, immigration is usually understood to mean the long term
reallocation of a person from one side of a state border to another.
Free immigration therefore means that people who would like to make
such a move are free from not interpersonal liberty maximising
compatible restrains. The biggest of such restrains right now is
state immigration controls. These come in the form of state issued
passport controls at state borders and visa licensing systems that
allow the state to control who is on its territory for how long and
I am not trying to
argue about words. If Hoppe has a problem sticking to a consistent
meaning of a word let us just argue about the meaning itself. Can we
agree that the state is violating people's liberty with these types
of policies or not? And can we therefore agree that these policies
have to go unconditionally or not? Unfortunately, Hoppe seems to
really believe that state immigration controls, to some degree are
not in violation of liberty. However, as I argue above, the attack on
open borders via redefining the word 'free' can hardly be taken
seriously. So what other arguments does Hoppe have?
Although, not so
fast. At first he seems to continue the article, explicitly rejecting
state immigration controls as unnatural in part four. However,
immediately after he has done so, he starts to develop a new way of
arguing that current immigration is violating the liberty of people.
Hoppe says that since we have a state, that state then employs
policies like building roads that are not market results. This
distorted market will also have a distorting effect on immigration.
And this is what he calls forced integration, because we now have
more roads than we would otherwise have and therefore the locals have
to put up with more immigrants than they would normally get.
This is a really odd
argument in many ways. To start with, he seems to contradict himself.
In part two of the article, he argued that trying to argue against
immigration with the welfare state would not be convincing, as this
is a problem of the welfare state, which will have to go. But now he
is applying the logic that he himself rejected earlier, to do just
that. If immigration leads to problems with other state policies than
libertarians need to argue against these policies instead of making
themselves advocates of more statism.
But his argument is
also not economically correct. Yes, the state is distorting the
economy. But it is hard to tell what the exact market result would
have been. How does Hoppe know, that we now have more streets then we
would otherwise have? If we could figure that out without the market,
then we would have a pretty good argument in favour of central
planning. Maybe the opposite is the case. Maybe now, we have less
roads than we would otherwise have. In that case the same argument
would lead to the opposite conclusion of forced exclusion. As a
scholar of Austrian economics, he should know that?
Next he argues that
in today's world the government and not the market is fully in charge
of admitting people. That however, seems simply wrong. Behind the
state borders, especially domestic property is still mostly owned
privately. So despite the fact that we have state borders, the control
over who comes into the country is still to a large degree in the
hands of the market of that country. Without anyone renting out or
selling a property to the immigrant, the immigrant still has a
problem. But there does not seem to be a shortage of people doing
that and I cannot see why there would be a shortage without border
controls. Quite to the contrary, with the freeing up of markets it is
reasonable to assume that accommodation could become cheaper as
Hoppe however argues
that immigration controls lead to forced integration and forced
exclusion. I can see how immigration controls are forceful
exclusions. If a property owner on the inside of the fence would like
to invite someone, the government can prevent this. That is why it is
not libertarian. I find it harder to see a case of forceful
integration. If the government lets someone through the state border,
the people inside the fence can still say no to the person. And if
everyone does, then the person would have simply nowhere to go, even
in today's worlds. In order for this to be forced integration, it
would need to be the case that someone is invited by the government
and the government gives that person an accommodation. This does not
seem to happen very often. If it does however, it is indeed not
libertarian. But then again, instead of establishing general border
controls and a visa system, the way to deal with that would be to
abolish these state programs too. In fact, in this case, border
controls and visas are clearly of no importance, as this obviously
happens with or without these policies in place as well. So Hoppe is
simply wrong if he concludes that it is the immigration controls
itself that lead to forced integration.
Up to this point in
the articles Hoppe has failed completely to establish an argument in
favour of libertarian state border controls. However, in the
remaining three parts, his arguments actually get a lot worse. While
up unit now, he at least tried to make it look like he was making a
consistent argument, he completely loses this in what is coming. It
is a mixture of wild speculation and false conclusions that is not
concerned with principals or consistencies. Let us have a look at it.
In part five he
argues that if we had an absolute monarch that owned the whole
country, then we would get similar results to free market
immigration. It is beyond me how he comes to this bizarre conclusion.
I guess, his line of thoughts goes something like this:
Libertarianism is about property. If we had a single ruler, then the
country could be seen as property. Therefore this would produce
similar results to free markets.
Just like in the
case of the word 'free', Hoppe has probably confused himself with
words. He calls both property and therefore it becomes the same
thing. He does not seem to realise that a King owning a country has
absolutely nothing to do with property as being advocated by liberty
loving libertarians. To be fair, a lot of libertarians do not
understand the link between liberty and property. They therefore
cannot distinguish between liberty maximising and non liberty
maximising property. They simply think liberty is property. And
Hoppe's argument is probably a result of that confusion.
But at the very
least, he should realise that it is very dangerous to even just
approximate a head of state to a private property owner. This is an
argument often done by statist who want to justify things like
taxation and regulations. They will argue that really no one owns
anything, everything is owned by the state and therefore the state
can tell you what to do with it or even take it away from you.
He continues this
strange argument into part six, where he approximates a democratic
government as the owner of the country. But since this owner, is not
a single person anymore, but a changing committee, it will produce
very different immigration rules than a king, so he argues. Fair
enough, but what does that have to do with libertarianism? The state
simply should go out of the way. The problems of immigration that
Hoppe correctly or not incorrectly describes in this part are not
problems coming from open borders, but from other state policies. And
as he himself argued in part two, that is not a good argument against
He also takes this
ownership analogy way too far, as if the democratic state would
directly allocate people into properties. The reality however is,
that this rarely happens. Most of the residential properties in the
US as well as all the other western countries are owned privately.
The state in such an environment going out of the way is just a
policy of liberty.
Finally in part
seven, he comes to a conclusion. This is not a logical conclusion.
His argumentation so far was all over the place. He uses words in
different meanings as it suits him in every given sentence. He wildly
speculates about results of all kinds of systems and presents the
conclusions of his speculation as market results if he likes them.
And he simply is not very bothered with contradicting himself. In one
word, his argumentation is a big mess. And so he concludes not what
has followed, but what he wanted to conclude all along; that as long
as the state exists (and to his credit, he stresses that the state
will have to go), libertarians need to support certain state
immigration policies which Hoppe thinks are close to market results.
This is nonsense and I cannot see that he has even come close so far
to an argument that would justify such a conclusion on libertarians
A similar mess is
the second article, “Immigration and Libertariansm”. Here he
repeats a lot of the arguments that we have already seen. However, he
makes some new ones. But first he start by attacking
“left-libertarians”. He suggests that those are not real
libertarians. I can see some people who might be called left
libertarians that really are not, like Noam Chomsky. However, Hoppe
never explains who exactly he means by that. But from the article, it
seems that if you believe that the state should get out of the way of
immigration unconditionally, then you are a left libertarian as
opposed to just a libertarian. Silly attempt of an ad hominem attack.
His new arguments
are first, that one could see the state as a trustee of all its
citizens (he seems obsessed with constructing arguments that present
the government as legitimate property owners. He never talks about
liberty, property is clearly all he knows). On the basis of this
argument he then goes on to outline what he thinks a sensible
immigration policy would be. By that he means, what he would like to
see. It is not at all clear why his proposals should be the results
of a trustee.
Seeing the state as
a trustee of its citizens is of course absolute nonsense from a
libertarian point of view. Again, this is exactly the kind of
nonsense that statist are trying to sell us. The state is not a
voluntary and therefore legitimate organisation that can legitimately
make decisions on behave of its citizens.
concedes that seeing the state as a trustee is not a good way of
looking at it. But his reason for that is really strange. He does not
reject the idea because it violates people's liberty, no. He think
this is a bad analogy because we don't see the immigration policies
that he thinks we should see, as Hoppe sees them as market results.
In reality, since
the state cannot be seen as a trustee, any policy that comes out of
the state restriction the free movement of people on the basis of
private property has to be seen as illegitimate, no matter what these
policies are. And Hoppe never comes up with an example of the state
actually violating the property of domestic people by letting
“foreigners” through the state gate. Sure there are plenty of
other policies in place that do violate private property rights. But
those are separate policies from immigration controls.
Policies like the
welfare state, which he goes on to blame for some negative effects on
immigration. The welfare state might or might not produce these
effects, the case is actually a lot less clear than he might think.
In any case, Libertarians are not advocating welfare, just open
borders. And again, Hoppe himself rejected the argument of conflating
the two in his other article, so why does he bring it up here?
At one point he
actually not only concludes that immigration is bad for the welfare
state, but that “a financial crisis of unparalleled magnitude would
result”. This is really beneath Hoppe. There is not a shred of
evidence that immigration is causing economic problems. If it did, it
would be an argument against free markets in general. And as we have
seen above, Hoppe knows this very well.
It is a bit
difficult to make a clear conclusion from all of this. Why is Hoppe
coming up with such a mess of an argumentation? Is he too stupid to
realize what he is doing? He might be, but it is not the impression
that I have of Hoppe. I think he knows what he is doing and he is
doing it deliberately. It looks to me like that he knows that there
is not a case for libertarian state border controls. But he really
does not like the outcome of this particular free market policy. So
he is deliberately creating a messy argumentation. That way he can
suggest to the anti immigration crowd that they are ok rejecting
immigration on libertarian grounds. And that crowd seems more than
happy to ignore the mess and pick up the ball. On the other hand, if
a critic comes along trying to suggest that he is not a libertarian,
he will point to the sentences in which he says that he does not like
the state and wants to get rid of it. But that does not change the
fact that these sentences are in contradiction with lots of other
things he writes. He is clearly trying to avoid that critics can
easily pin him down. It is easy to pin someone down who has a good
argument but is making little mistakes. Than a critic can point to
the specific mistake. But if someone's arguments are all over the
place, criticism becomes more difficult as it is difficult to find a
starting point. It is also harder to totally dismantle the mess. And
so he can create the illusion that, although he might have made a
mistake or two, there still is a case for libertarian state border
controls. This is nonsense, as I have shown.
I don't like what
Hoppe is doing. He makes libertarianism look disingenuous.
Libertarianism looks like statist conservatism, an ideology which,
like all statist ideologies is only in favour of some freedom, but
also has its favourite state programs. We do not have to trick people
into Libertarianism. If we cannot argue honestly, this movement will
ArtsPosted by David Ramsay Steele Mon, May 04, 2015 22:15:30
I composed this little tale about fifteen years ago, and sent it to a
couple of magazines which promptly rejected it.
I then forgot about it until recently and thought of sending it to a few
more, but upon re-reading it I see it is out of date in many ways but not yet
ancient enough for retro appeal (“zero cool” still had a gleam at the time, but
is now covered in verdigris). My first
thought was that I might update it, but that would actually be a lot of work
and I might never get around to it. So
rather than just waste it entirely, I’m sticking it here.
I’ve never been to Beverly Hills, except in
the sense that we all have.
KIND OF A POWER
DAVID RAMSAY STEELE
Lucy moved all her stuff into Dan’s old office. The last item she carried in was the “Under
urgent consideration” pile of current scripts.
She placed this in the tray on the left of her desk, then gazed with
satisfaction at the Sony Pentium notebook, the phone, the bowl of polished stones,
the herbal bouquet, and the purplish black candle in the little silver
candlestick. This desk would never look
so tidy again, until maybe, a couple years down the road, she had her next
major promotion, probably to president of the agency. And then someone else would take over from
her the office she had now taken over from Dan.
The phone rang. It was Fiona in Human Resources. “Lucy, I have an Officer Martinez here, from
the police. Do you have a minute to talk with him? It’s about Dan.”
Ninety seconds later,
Fiona appeared at the office door, with a young man, single by the look of it,
who was wearing, not a police uniform, but a gray-green jacket and aqua shirt
which went quite well with his dark skin tone.
Not bad, thought Lucy.
This being her first
day, in fact her first five minutes, in her new office, she had a choice of
uncluttered chairs to offer Martinez. He was looking at her Welsh brooch.
“Is that . . .?”
symbol. Would you be a spiritual
“No.” And then by way
of explanation: “Catholic.”
“Just a few points we
need to clarify. This was Daniel
Zegarac’s office? Ms. McGregor informs
me you now have Mr. Zegarac’s job.”
Martinez’s black eyes darted about like a
snake’s tongue. Lucy had been looking
forward to a few minutes alone to gloat over her new corner office with the
zero cool view and enough bookshelf space to encompass a basic herb garden in
seven earthenware pots. It might have
been better to have seen the cop in a conference room.
Martinez asked a few general questions about
Dan and quite naturally slipped in a few about Lucy. She explained the nature of Dan’s job, now
her job. She gave Martinez
her routine little chat about the work of the agency, representing creative
talent in the Hollywood jungle, getting the
most promising scripts to the right people in the studios. Fiona
should have taken care of this.
vaguely wondered why the police were interested at all. Maybe they needed to rule out suicide for
insurance purposes, though if she’d considered it seriously, she’d have known
that wouldn’t be police business.
Martinez paused and
Lucy picked up a hint of awkwardness.
She thought she knew what he would say next. She almost helped him along by inquiring
“Just what kind of a script is it?”
But she was
mistaken. Martinez was not about to
mention his screenplay, or his girlfriend’s or brother-in-law’s screenplay.
He said: “We now
believe that Daniel Zegarac’s death was not accidental. Mr. Zegarac was murdered.”
His eyes had stopped
their restless flickering. They were fixed
on Lucy’s face. What he saw there was an
instant of pure, unfeigned astonishment.
“We were told it was
an accident,” said Lucy. “Wasn’t he
working on a boat?”
“He was building a
yacht. He fell and broke his neck. Since the autopsy, we now believe someone
gave him a push.”
Deftly massaging the
truth was second nature to Detective Martinez.
He didn’t explain that a witness had seen someone leaving Dan Zegarac’s
place close to the time of his fatal fall, and only because of that had the
police and the coroner looked more closely for signs of foul play. There was nothing in the autopsy report to
definitely indicate homicide. Once they
looked, however, they found details of the fatal scene that were atypical in
this kind of accident.
She said: “Wow, that’s . . . Why would anyone
kill Dan? You have any idea who did it?”
Fortunately, Lucy had not yet put up her
movie festival posters. Martinez was
sitting in front of a plain peach wall, which made it child’s play to
scrutinize his aura. Applying her
well-honed technique, she could instantly make out that this aura had blue and
turquoise points. Not a man to be taken
lightly, but no signs of unusual potency, at least not of a spiritual kind. Years of experience had taught her that by a
little deeper concentration she could see beyond the immediate manifestation,
to a faint kind of secondary aura, invisible to all save the most spiritually
discerning. She perceived a thin brown
smoke, some underlying ominous quality, an emanation of violence. Not surprising in a homicide detective, given
the kinds of experiences he must be familiar with almost daily. This whole analysis took less than two
seconds. Lucy was very good at it.
“It’s early in the
investigation,” said Martinez. How well
did you know him? Would you know if he
had any enemies?”
“Not really. Not that I can think of. A lot of people around here didn’t like him,
but not enough to . . . want to hurt him.”
“Not mixed up in
anything shady? Drugs or anything like
that?” The purpose of this question was to ascertain whether Lucy would snatch
the opportunity to send him off in an irrelevant direction; she merely shook
“Did you personally
like him? Did you get on well with him?”
He made my life a misery. When I
heard about the accident, I felt like celebrating. “Dan could be very trying. We had our issues, work-related issues. But . . . I was just appalled that he died. I couldn’t believe it. I was really upset. We all were.”
If Martinez had not already been informed that she had loathed Dan and
fought him bitterly over the recent negotiations with Bernstein at Columbia
TriStar, someone was sure to tell him.
“Okay.” Martinez made a slight movement in his chair,
a hint that he was about to get up and leave.
“Uh, one last thing. This is a
routine question we have to ask everyone.
Where were you on the night of May 6th?”
She checked her palm
pilot. Nothing on that night.
“I must have been at
home watching TV. Yeah, I’m sure I
was. Then in bed. Asleep.”
“Alone all the time?”
“Totally.” She pulled a mock-dismayed face and added:
Martinez didn’t smile,
but his voice was soft enough to perhaps indicate sympathy. “It’s routine. We have to check on everyone.”
Not so routine was the
call she took from Detective Martinez a few days later. He asked her to stop by police
headquarters. He was ready to say that
she needed to be there to look at an artist’s sketch of the person seen leaving
the scene of the homicide. Surprisingly,
she agreed to be there, without any need to invoke this contrived rationale.
When she showed at
headquarters, Martinez had more questions of a general nature. Then: “Would you say you’ve been lucky in
Uh oh. “Some good luck. Some bad luck. A whole lot of hard work.”
“As a matter of fact,
you’ve had some lucky breaks.”
Lucy guessed what was coming next.
So they’ve noticed. Well, they can’t
know anything. And even if they did,
what could they do about it?
“As I look at the trajectory of your career,
I see you’ve had three big breaks. And
each one of those lucky breaks has been precipitated by the death of a
colleague.” Trajectory. Precipitated. Definitely has a screenplay.
Lucy felt slightly dazed but not
anxious. If she’d been even moderately
perturbed she’d have gone straight into Great Pan breathing for serenity of
soul, but this hadn’t been necessary.
Martinez said: “Quite
a coincidence.” He paused and looked around the room in an oddly unfocussed
way. Lucy abruptly knew that colleagues of
Martinez were watching her reactions from an adjacent room and—of course—videotaping them. Weren’t they supposed to warn you in advance
when they did that? Or at least tell you
they considered you a suspect? This is so LAPD. Either they would swear under oath that they had warned her, or, if they thought they
had a case against her—not that this could ever happen—they’d swear that not
informing her was a careless and deeply regretted slip.
Martinez had Lucy’s
basic bio on a sheet of paper, and was checking off each item. Yes, in her previous job she had worked for
the Tom Davenport agency. Yes, twelve
years ago she had been assistant to Mary Nolan.
She got on badly with Nolan, who had recommended that Lucy be canned.
“Business was bad,”
Lucy recalled. “They were looking for
“Nolan’s body turned
up in her swimming pool. So they got
themselves a headcount reduction.”
Martinez kept the irony out of his voice. He didn’t reveal that the drowning had been
viewed at the time as suspicious and a police report had been generated. An unidentified DNA sample was on file. The report was inconclusive and the
investigation had been shelved.
Lucy had taken over
Mary’s job, an arrangement that was eventually made permanent. When business improved she got her own
Five years later,
Lucy’s boss at Davenport was Eddie McInerny.
Though she had been Eddie’s protégé—Martinez didn’t yet know she had
also been his mistress—their relationship soured and they held sharply opposed
views on the future direction of the agency.
McInerny’s house burned down. Something fatty
had been left simmering on a kitchen stove.
He slept through the thickening fumes and was dead of smoke inhalation
before his flesh began to char. The body contained traces of cocaine and three
other controlled substances.
“He could have been
zonked on drugs and forgotten to turn off the stove. Or he could have had help.” Help with the zonking or help with the fire,
or both. Still, there was no proof this
wasn’t a typical accidental blaze.
So here was a second
apparently accidental death of a colleague with whom Lucy had developed an
acrimonious relationship. A second
career boost, as it turned out, for Lucy had quickly concluded the deal that
Eddie had been working on, the deal that turned the Davenport Agency around.
Opinions might differ on whether two deaths
and two career boosts were or were not an extraordinary coincidence. Subsequently Lucy, with a number of lucrative
movie deals to her credit, had moved into a senior position at the Paulsen
Creative Talent Agency. And after five
years here, bingo, we have a third seemingly accidental death of a colleague
who clashed with Lucy, who quarreled with Lucy, and whose removal would likely
help Lucy. Surely this is beyond
Martinez had read
about individuals who’d been struck by lightning on three separate
occasions. Astounding coincidences could
happen, were bound to happen once in a while.
Or perhaps some persons had physical qualities or chosen habits that
made them unusually likely to be struck by lightning. Could there possibly be people whose personal
qualities made it fatal for others to get in their way? Detective Martinez didn’t think so. He was open-minded but not unduly credulous.
Martinez was an excellent listener.
I did a good job,” Lucy was saying.
“You can’t say I’ve coasted to the top by wasting the competition.” She didn’t intend to sound amused, but a
little of that came through.
thoughtful: “It could be fifty percent job performance and fifty percent
luck.” He might have been speaking of
his own career in the police department.
“A person could do okay on job performance and still decide on some
pro-active interventions to improve the odds.”
Even as he said this, Martinez
couldn’t make himself believe it. The
story just wouldn’t walk, it wouldn’t bark, it wouldn’t wag its tail. And whether he believed it or not, no one in
the DA’s office would want to parade it on a leash in front of a jury. Some link had to be found between Lucy
Armstrong and the death scenes. So far,
Looking at her soft
countenance, long red hair, and nicely curved figure, Martinez briefly
considered the possibility he was mentally exonerating her because he liked the
look of her. He didn’t think so. Only six months before, he had not hesitated
to pursue and arrest the mouth-watering Mrs. Mulligan, who had quite
understandably, after more than ample provocation, hired a contract killer to
dispose of her exasperating but well-insured husband.
Martinez could have placed Lucy as a serial
murderer if she’d worn tight black pants, cropped hair, a leaner physique, a
bonier face. Or, given her actual
persona, if Nolan, McInerny, and Zegarac had been poisoned. Any type of person might commit murder, but
he couldn’t see Lucy sneaking out to Zegarac’s house at dead of night and
pushing him off a ladder. Also, the DNA
found at the Nolan drowning was male.
And the person seen leaving the Zegarac homicide scene was believed to
coincidence is ruled out. Suppose also
Lucy Armstrong did not kill these three people.
What are we left with?
Lucy thought of mentioning that she’d been in Denver when Mary Nolan
died, and in Paris when Eddie McInerny died.
Did Martinez know that yet? He
would find out about Europe first, then about Denver. Let him
Martinez was trying a
different approach. “You must have
thought about this yourself. What did
A little shrug.
“Coincidence?” There are no coincidences.
Synchronicity is a law of nature, just like gravity. That was Zuleika,
holding forth in her preachy way.
Zuleika had been right about synchronicity, of course.
else ever comment about this coincidence?”
One time, just before
she’d left Davenport, when someone had gone quiet, tailed off in mid-sentence,
and the other two people present had looked embarrassed. As though they had some knowledge in
common—probably knowledge of a conversation in which they had speculated avidly
about Lucy’s benefiting from two deaths in a row.
Then there was
Laura. Laura had said: “So the spells
worked, then.” Lightly enough to show
she wasn’t concerned. Warmly enough that
it could have been more than just a joke.
Lucy smiled at the recollection.
He’s sharp. “Someone joked about
it. Said the spells work.”
Why not? He can find out anyway. “I was into Wicca.” Blank stare from Martinez. “I belonged to a coven.”
“You’re a witch?”
“We called ourselves
students of Wicca. This was a few years
back. People around the office knew
something about it. There were
jokes.” Let the Cowans mock.
“You’re not into this
“The coven was
disbanded. I haven’t really kept it
up.” Like the South Beach diet, except
that she really hadn’t kept that up.
Disbanded. You could say the Spirits of Light Coven had
been disbanded. Zuleika sputtering with
rage, her lips positively frothing. “I offered you the world and you betrayed
me, you loathsome creature, you rotten hypocrite.” Her Russian accent thickened as her
adrenaline level rose. “Your pathetic little act is finished. You’re under my curse . . . yes, my curse!”
“You worshipped the
Devil?” Martinez wanted to know.
A brief exhalation of
amusement. The usual misconceptions. “Wicca has nothing to do with His Satanic
Majesty. Really. It’s nature worship, not devil worship. Though I do know a couple devotees of Satan,
and they’re, like, totally nice people who wouldn’t hurt a fly. . . .”
Lucy found herself parroting one of Zuleika’s
set pieces: “Wicca sees the divine manifest in all creation. The cycles of nature are the holy days of
Wicca, the earth is the temple of Wicca, all life-forms are its prophets and
teachers. Wiccans respect life, cherish
the free will of sentient beings, and acknowledge the sanctity of the
environment.” That’s about all the Cowans need to know.
this. “So. Did you nature worshippers
put spells on people you wanted out of the way?”
“We were so totally not about that. Wiccans believe for every action there’s a
reaction. If you send out evil energy,
it’ll return to you threefold.” Only if
your enemy is protected by a sufficiently strong charm. “Using spells to coerce or injure is always
evil.” But possible. And evil’s kind of
a relative thing.
stick pins in voodoo dolls?”
The absurd preoccupation with physical props. “Oh no.
I respect voodoo as an authentic grassroots religion of the Haitian
people and an expression of community solidarity in the face of neo-colonialist
exploitation.” Lucy had majored in
Sociology at Berkeley. “Voodoo is a
totally valid kind of folk tradition; Wicca is different.”
She didn’t mention
that the Wicca tradition does involve acquiring some of the enemy’s hair or
fingernails, and burning them over a black candle with appropriate
incantations, on four consecutive nights when the Moon is waning. Let him
do his own research. Why do I pay
property taxes? But this was a
portion of the tradition that she had repudiated, and the online record of her
dispute with the Reverend Zuleika LeGrand would attest to that. In any case, it was all totally
academic. The DA’s office was not going
to indict anyone, in the twenty-first century, for casting spells.
The meeting had been a formality, the concluding handshake to months of
negotiations. In the Paulsen Agency’s
glass conference room, amid blue sky and green palms, business was over, the
chit-chat was winding down, lunch was in the offing, and there came an
“Ms. Armstrong, do you have a moment, please?” It was Martinez,
standing in the doorway, lithe and springy on his feet.
Around the table were
Paulsen’s president, Jay Maxwell, Bill Rescher from Public Relations, the
writer Joss Whedon, and, in a rare appearance, the legendary Clyde Paulsen
himself. Whedon would rewrite his story
along the lines agreed to, and the agency would pay him half a million for the
“Just a couple of
questions.” The voice was as gravely
courteous as ever. Maxwell and Whedon
didn’t seem to notice: Martinez might just as well be the limo driver. Rescher looked distinctly annoyed at the
interruption. Paulsen appeared
fascinated, but then, he always did.
Lucy found Martinez’s
feeble ambush both mildly diverting and mildly irritating. For him to appear like this, without prior
warning, while she was with other people, was a planned attempt to disconcert
her. She was slightly embarrassed for
him because it wasn’t very well done.
“How can I help you
this time? Why don’t we go to my
office?” A warm smile and a cheerful
lilt, but in that moment Lucy decided this would be the last interview. Before saying goodbye to Martinez, she would
let him know that all future communications had to go through her lawyer. One-on-oneing with Martinez had been fine,
but she wouldn’t be Columboed, even ineffectually.
Over the next few weeks, Lucy’s attorney Steve Gordon heard from
Martinez a couple of times with what seemed like trivial inquiries. Martinez appeared at the Paulsen offices more
than once, and she heard of other people who had been questioned.
Laura was away in Cannes, lucky Laura. In the evenings, there seemed to be more
squad cars than usual, making more commotion than usual, near Lucy’s
condo. Before going to bed, she would
call Laura—it was early morning in Cannes—and exchange reports. They would enjoy a good chuckle about agency
office happenings, who was doing what to whom in Cannes, Laura’s own
hair-raising adventures, Hollywood scuttlebutt, the hunk Martinez, and the
strange investigation into Dan Zegarac’s demise.
The day before Laura was to get back in LA,
Gordon took a call from a female cop named Bennett, asking to set up a
meeting. Bennett said just enough to
convince Gordon that his client was not a suspect, and that she would
personally benefit from being present.
When Gordon called Lucy, she immediately insisted on co-operating.
So here they were. The two cops, Lucy, and her lawyer.
“We requested this meeting,” said Bennett,
“because of a few points we need to clarify, and because we have information
Ms. Armstrong needs to be aware of. Let
me say right away that Ms. Armstrong is not a suspect. We’re grateful to her for her co-operation. We do have a few questions for her. Then we’ll explain the latest developments in
Gordon turned to Lucy and was about to
whisper something; she held up her hand and shook her head. “I’ll answer. Go ahead.” But
don’t trust them.
Martinez asked: “How well do you know William
What the . . .? “I’ve known him for yea long. He was with Davenport.”
both worked at Davenport, and now you both work at Paulsen. He followed you here.”
“Yes. He joined us a year ago.”
“Do you know him
“Don’t see much of
him. He’s not involved directly with the
talent side of the business.”
Bennett asked: “On May
4th, did you tell William Rescher you were leaving town for several days?”
sharing an elevator ride with Bill. He’d
asked her if she was leaving for the airport, “for that Nebraska thing.” She’d said yes. She had been selected as one of the judges at
the new Nebraska festival. But the
festival had been called off, some scandal about funds.
“I was in a
hurry. Conversations with Bill tend to
go on too long. I was taking a taxi to
LAX but that was to say goodbye to a friend who was leaving for Europe. I didn’t want to take the time to get into
the convoluted messy story of why the Nebraska festival was cancelled.”
There was actually a
little more to it. She had lied on
impulse, not just to save the time of explaining, but because she somehow
instinctively didn’t want creepy Bill to know where she was or what she was
It occurred to Lucy that if she’d gone to
Nebraska as planned, she would have had a way solid alibi for all three deaths,
not just the first two. Yet still the
significance of this fact didn’t dawn on her.
“Did you ever date
Where’s this going? “Yeah. A
long time ago. That was, let me see now,
twelve years ago.” The week after she
started at Davenport. Bill was already
there, and that’s where she had first met him.
“Who terminated the
“There was no
“Can you recall
whether one of you wanted to go on dating, the other didn’t?”
“Oh, that would be him
kind of wanting to go on, me wanting to stop.”
“He upset about that?”
She had given it
barely a thought for twelve years, but now it came back to her. Bill had been younger and cuter then. She’d felt a bit mushy about being so brutal. God, there were tears in his eyes. He was all, “I can’t go on without you. You mean everything to me.” Sweet, at the time, but what a loser. Surely he got over it quickly. Four months later he married that anemic
blonde at the front desk, was still married to her, as far as Lucy could
Lucy’s next date was Brad Pitt. It was only once and that was six months
before the release of Thelma and Louise,
so he wasn’t big BO. But there was a
picture in Hollywood Reporter. That kind of publicity never hurt an agency,
and Eddie McInerny had been impressed. So
much for Bill Rescher.
“William Rescher is in
custody, said Bennett. “He has confessed
to the murder of Daniel Zegarac.”
“What? That’s way wacky.”
“He did it,” said
Martinez. “We have independent corroboration.”
totally putting you on. Did he even know
right. He barely knew him.” It was odd that Martinez said this as though
it clinched the case against Rescher.
Lucy sensed that they
were now getting to the whole point of the interview. What
kind of a trick is this? Lucy was
absolutely sure that Bill could not
have killed Dan. This just had to be a
smokescreen. But why?
Bennett cleared her throat and said: “Ms.
Armstrong, we have to tell you . . . because this may cause you some
embarrassment when he goes to trial.
William Rescher committed murder because of you. He’s seriously . . . infatuated with
you. He has been obsessively in love
with you for fourteen years. His motive
for killing Daniel Zegarac was to help you out.”
Lucy’s head was spinning. She instantly went into Great Pan breathing.
A long pause.
Martinez asked, “Did you have any idea he felt this way about you?”
“But that’s just . . . He must be . . . totally out of his mind.”
Lucy was rapidly computing. Numerous little recollections of subtle
oddities in Bill’s speech and behavior, at rare intervals over the past twelve
years, suddenly made sense. What the
police were telling her struck her with stunning force as true, even obviously
true, a truth screaming for recognition.
Yet it had to
because it contradicted her certain knowledge that she could bring down her
enemies by the sheer force of her mind.
She knew perfectly well that she had deliberately caused the deaths of
Mary Nolan, Eddie McInerny, and Dan Zegarac by her own unique magickal hexing
power. Therefore, Bill Rescher could not
have killed them.
“This must be a shock
for you, and also disgusting, like a violation,” said Bennett, seeking to
soften the blow by empathizing. “However
the evidence is that you’ve been the center of William Rescher’s thoughts for
the past fifteen years.
Don’t panic. Need to think. “You’re saying he did those other killings
“He may never be
charged with them, but . . . yes, we believe he did them.” Martinez chose not to reveal that a DNA trace
from the Nolan death matched Bill Rescher.
Rescher would be offered concessions for confessing to at least two of
the three homicides, preferably all three.
It didn’t matter anyway: Rescher would likely be acquitted by reason of
insanity and incarcerated for life in a mental institution.
In kind of a vertigo,
Lucy heard Bennett’s voice, as though from the other end of a long, winding
corridor: “Did Rescher ever tell you what he did before he got into the agency
business? He worked for an insurance company,
investigating claims. Before that he’d
been a small-town sheriff for a few years.
He knew something about domestic accidents and crime scene
investigations. So when he . . .
developed this psychotic obsession about you, he could easily see a practical
way to help you out.”
It took less than three minutes of turmoil
for the mist to be dispelled, for the simple truth to shine forth in all its
clarity, and for Lucy to feel once again completely in control. If Bill had directly engineered the deaths of
Mary Nolan, Eddie McInerny, and Dan Zegarac, this showed, not that Lucy didn’t
have the power to kill at a distance by the trained exercise of concentrated
thought, but that this formidable power of hers worked through a human
intermediary. Of course. She should have known it. Hadn’t she known it?
Zuleika had once said: “All occult powers
work through the human world; all human powers work through the natural
world.” Actually the gross old manatee
had said this more than once. It was one
of her irritating little sayings, as if she could have attained to some kind of
privileged wisdom. At the time, of
course, they had all hung on Zuleika’s every goddamn word.
All occult powers work through the human
world, the mental world. It was true
enough, and obvious enough, and therefore it was something Lucy must always
have known. Of course Bill was besotted with her and consumed with the mission of
serving her interests. Bill was an
instrumentality of the hex.
Within a few seconds of this surprising
thought, she began to feel that she had never been surprised at all. She conceived that she had been struck with
fresh force by a fact she had always taken for granted. The only surprise, it now seemed to her, was
the identity of the human agent. And she
would soon begin to recall that she had known all along, on some deep level of
her being, that it was Bill.
She could picture herself one day explaining
the principle of the thing to Laura and a select inner circle of devoted
followers: “What’s more in keeping with Wicca wisdom? That a witch might cause the death of an enemy
by using mental power to make a ladder collapse? Or that a witch might cause the death of an
enemy by influencing the mind of a third person who then kicks over the
ladder?” The answer could be no less
self-evident to Lucy and her followers than it had been to the sorry old fraud
Now Lucy had Bennett
figured out. She was the kind of
sympathetic cop who would be first choice to talk to a rape victim or to a
witness who had seen a loved one blown away.
Probably had a degree in social work.
Okay now, what would they expect me to say in this situation? “This is just awful,” Lucy wailed. “I thought I’d made it this far by my own
“It would be
unproductive to let that distress you.”
Bennett’s tone was almost maternal.
“Chance enters into everyone’s life.
Many people fail to get the promotion they deserve because someone
doesn’t like them, for instance. You
didn’t ask Rescher to do any of the things he did. And as far as we can see, he was not mainly
concerned about helping your career. It
seems he was thinking that each of these victims, at the time, was getting you
down, causing you severe emotional pain.
The way he thought of it, he couldn’t bear to see you suffer.”
Detective Martinez felt good about the case. Everything, or almost everything, had clicked
into place quite smoothly. A week after
his first meeting with Lucy, he’d found she had a cast-iron alibi for the death
of Dan Zegarac, an alibi she evidently didn’t even know about.
On the afternoon of
May 6th, Jordan Pirelli, actuary, e-trader, body-builder, occasional model, and
currently unbooked actor, had gone out of town leaving a faucet trickling in
his jacuzzi. When wet stuff came through
the ceilings of the condos below, the janitor, Frank Vucovic, had to make sure
of the source of the flood. Since Pirelli was a security-minded person who had
installed additional anti-theft devices, janitor Frank needed to have the fire
department break into Pirelli’s condo through the window. Before going to such lengths, Frank wanted to
be very sure of the source of the flooding, so he had called the neighboring
apartment, Lucy Armstrong’s, at 12:30 in the morning, and when she answered and
said she was still up, he had personally gone into her apartment, talked with
her, and checked around for any signs of leakage. This had taken about a minute. It wasn’t remarkable that Lucy didn’t recall
it—some people do forget unimportant occurrences in the few minutes before they
fall asleep. Frank vividly remembered
the whole sequence of events, which he was obliged to report in tiresome detail
to the building management later that morning.
It was a perfect
alibi. Not only did it place Lucy two
hours away from the scene of the crime, it was also a purely chance event;
there was no way she could have engineered it, certainly not with the required
precise timing. This ruled out the
possibility that she had arranged to provide herself with an alibi, knowing in
advance that the murder would take place.
It tended to eliminate her as an accomplice or accessory.
When Bill Rescher
displayed an interest in the questioning of Lucy, Martinez, in a reflexive
impulse to sow misdirection, hinted that she was the hot suspect. The calamitous look on Rescher’s face
intrigued Martinez, who began to feed Rescher with suggestions that Lucy was
the investigative target, and to ostentatiously pull her in for
questioning. Then Martinez had staged
his arrival at Paulsen to confront Lucy in Rescher’s company.
eagerness that Lucy should come to no harm, skilfully manipulated by Martinez,
had soon prompted Bill to confess to the killing of Dan Zegarac. Bill knew many details of the fatal scene. It was a couple of days before Martinez
mentioned to him that he was also a suspect in the Nolan and McInerny
killings. Once this matter was raised,
Rescher became exceedingly cagey. He
knew that Lucy had excellent alibis for those killings, so he had no motive to
confess to them. Martinez had not yet
informed him that DNA placed him at the scene of Mary Nolan’s drowning.
Hours of questioning
of Rescher and of Lucy had convinced Martinez that they had not been working
together. Rescher had acted alone and
without anyone else’s knowledge.
There were no major
loose ends. Something felt not quite
right about Lucy’s failure to volunteer her alibis for the Nolan and McInerny
deaths. But she was, after all, a deeply
spiritual person, which Martinez quite benevolently took to mean: occasionally
out to lunch and in need of a little practical guidance. For all her quick shrewdness, her mind could
sometimes be way off someplace on a broomstick.
The Council of Thirteen, the trustees of the coven, were all
there. Zuleika screeched: “You’re under my curse . . . yes, my curse!”
and slapped Lucy’s face. The next few
seconds of intense silence made that slap seem like the snapping of a bone,
though some eye-witnesses later argued about whether any blow had actually
landed. Lucy didn’t flinch but just
glared. Most of the onlookers felt
awkward as well as awed. Wiccans don’t
talk much about curses, and when they cast them, the entire rigmarole is
decorous and painstakingly slow. Yet
Zuleika was Zuleika. The members were embarrassed but also filled
with foreboding. They fully expected
something bad to happen to the delinquent Lucy, though possibly not for years.
That night, Zuleika,
never at a loss for captivating words, was paralyzed and rendered permanently
speechless by a stroke. Within hours,
self-effacing Ben Goldberg, Zuleika’s reliable lieutenant—and heir apparent now
that Lucy had vacated this role—was hit by a truck and put out of action. From the following morning when she heard the
news, Lucy never doubted her own awesome gift.
No member of the Spirits of Light Coven had
any doubts about what these events signified.
Lucy didn’t have to say anything.
For a few days, she thought she might assume the throne vacated by
Zuleika, but most of the members melted away.
They were impressed, even intimidated, but having been Zuleika’s
apostles they were not ready to switch allegiance to this disconcerting young
witch. Only Laura remained. And then, over the years, contacts were made with
a few more interested seekers: a new coven was discreetly in the making.
Martinez turned the steering wheel.
Bulky shoulders and taut arms, an efficient instrument of justice. He spent some time in Dave’s Gym, no time in
Dunkin’ Donuts. He wore a demeanor of
solemn dignity like a ceremonial robe.
His ancestors, Lucy divined, had been priests of Quetzalcoatl. They could be relied upon to hack out the
hearts of an endless procession of sacrificial victims to gratify their
ineffably potent god. Lucy was enough of
a postmodernist to feel at home with her vision of this vanished mystical
empire, with its pitiless established church ever thirsty for more daily
gallons of fresh human blood. Our own
society is brutal enough in its way, just kind of a different way, what with
corporate greed, global warming, and all.
Martinez thought he
was beginning to know Lucy better, to pierce beneath her unruffled
surface. She had never acted as upset as
he’d expected. She was calm; most of the
time she radiated an awesome sense of calm; he couldn’t help admiring her
amazing calm. Inside of her, she
undoubtedly did experience turbulent emotions.
Learning of Rescher’s sick obsession had shaken her. The observable signs were subtle, subdued,
yet there was no mistaking the juddering impact of tremendous shock, an eight
on her personal Richter scale, at the moment when she had learned of Bill’s
confession. She definitely had been
shaken. She was still shaken. Better see her right to her door.
“For me this is another case to be filed
away. For you it must be a little bit
He for sure
has a script. Detective Martinez stopped the car right on
the corner by Lucy’s condo building.
She said: “I guess you come across some,
like, really weird stuff in your job. As
weird as anything in the movies. Or even
“As a matter of fact . . .,” began Hugo
© 2001 David Ramsay